Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117 en-US Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2087-7099 Front cover, Editorial information, Table of Content, Back Cover - ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-20 2018-08-20 4 3 i vii EVALUATION OF SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF Kaempferia galanga L. RHIZOME EXTRACTS ON THE ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVITY ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST BACTERIAL PATHOGENS <p style="text-align: justify;">Background: aromatic ginger rhizome (<em>Kaempferia galanga</em> L.) is a member of Zingiberaceae family, has been known to have an antibacterial effect is used for everyday cooking spices, but the synergistic effect on broad spectrum antibiotics was unknown. Objective: this research was conducted to find out the synergistic effect of <em>Kaempferia galanga</em> L. Rhizome extract (KGR) on some broad-spectrum antibiotics against gram positive and negative bacterial pathogens in vitro. Method: KGR was taken from farmers in Samarinda City, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Extraction by maceration with ethanol solvent. Antibacterial activity test of KGR ethanol extract, antibiotic and synergistic effect using <em>Mueller-Hinton</em> agar, Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on ampicillin, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and meropenem antibiotics against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. Results were expressed in percentage increase of the inhibition zone. Statistical test with t-test, significantly different if p&lt;0.05. Results: KGR ethanol extract showed increase the percentage of antibiotic inhibition zone, ampicillin being the highest and the weakest of ciprofloxacin in <em>E. coli</em>; meropenem being the highest and the weakest of ciprofloxacin in <em>S. aureus</em>, statistically significant different tests on antibiotic ampicillin (<em>E. coli</em>), meropenem and cefuroxime. Conclusion: KGR ethanol extract showed synergistic effect on antibiotic ampicillin (<em>E. coli</em>), meropenem and cefuroxime in <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli</em>.</p> Almira Fahrinda Sjarif Ismail Khemasili Kosala Ika Fikriah Yuniati Yuniati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-26 2018-07-26 4 3 108 113 10.25026/jtpc.v4i3.148 SCREENING OF ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM Artemisia annua USING HFC-134A SUBCRITIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Artemisia annua</em> is known as the source of artemisinin, a sesqueterpene lactone possessing endoperoxide moeity with antiplasmodium activity. Sub-critical extraction of artemisinin from <em>Artemisia annua</em> using R134a solvent was conducted. A close system cycle process was constructed to investigate the ability of R134a to extract artemisinin together with other active compounds. Artemisinin and other isolated compouds yield was investigated at 30°C and presure process at 10 barr, with variation of process time. The extracted product was analysed as artemisinin as the target compounds with several isolated compounds as by product. Artemisinin content was reported ranging up to 0,5%, and the sub critic system was reported to be more efficient and effective comparing to other conventional extraction methods. The phytonics HFC-134a sub critics process can be used for extraction in selected pharmacologically active products from herbal plants.</p> Arthur Lelono Sabar Simanungkalit Ibnu Umarudin Herlan Herdiawan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-26 2018-07-26 4 3 114 121 10.25026/jtpc.v4i3.149 APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Cratoxylum sumatranum (JACK) BLUME STEMS ON ISOLATED RAT CORPUS CAVERNOSUM <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Cratoxylum sumatranum</em> (Jack) Blume of the Hypericaceae family is known as “Bentaleng” by Dayak Benuaq. In ethnobotany, <em>Cratoxylum sumatranum</em> stems (CSS) is used as energy drink or aphrodisiac, but its effect has not been scientifically proven. Research objective to study the aphrodisiac activity of CSS extract by screening the aphrodisiac activity <em>in vitro</em>. Method: CSS was collected from Kutai Kertanegara Regency, East Kalimantan Province. Extraction was by maceration with ethanol solvent for three days. Re-maceration was done twice. <em>In vitro</em> screening of aphrodisiac activity used isolated rat <em>corpus cavernosum</em>. The organ was placed into a 10 mL chamber containing <em>Krebs-Henselheit</em> solution at pH 7.4, 37°C and aerated with carbogen gas. After acclimation, a contraction test was performed with phenylephrine solution and after reaching the peak of contraction at plateau the Control (solvent extract) or CSS ethanol extract was administerd at cumulatively increased concentration. Vasodilation activity was known if the contraction response was decreased after the extract’s administration and expressed in percent contraction with negative value. Results: CSS ethanol extract induce vasodilatory response on rat <em>Corpus cavernosum</em> blood vessels. Vasodilation activity is increasing with increasing concentration of extract given compared to Control. Conclusion the aphrodisiac activity of CSS ethanol extracts is directly through the vasodilation action mechanism on blood vessels in the rat <em>corpus cavernosum</em>. &nbsp;</p> Sjarif Ismail Meiliati Aminyoto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-26 2018-07-26 4 3 122 127 10.25026/jtpc.v4i3.150 EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Eleutherine bulbosa (MILL.) URB ON ANAEROBIC BACTERIAL Prophyromonas gingivalis IN VITRO <p style="text-align: justify;">Periodontitis is an inflamation of supporting tissues on teeth that became the main cause of <em>Prophyromonas gingivalis </em>(<em>P. gingivalis</em>) bacteria. Treatment of periodontitis is by giving antibacterial agent therapy. Plants that have antibacterial effects one are <em>Eleutherine bulbosa</em> (UEB) bulbs from the <em>Iridaceae</em> family. This plant has been used for ethnobotany boils drugs and has been known to have antibacterial activity toward against intestinal pathogen bacteria that is anaerobic Gram Negative, but still unknown its activity against on oral pathogenic bacteria such as <em>P. gingivalis</em>. The purpose of this study was to know the effect of UEB extract on the growth of <em>P. gingivalis</em> bacteria as in vitro. UEB is taken from agriculture center in Samarinda city. UEB Simplisia was tested for antibacterial activity using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on BHI-A media supplemented with vitamin K and hemin. The bacteria which used were <em>P. gingivalis</em> ATCC® 33277. Blank disc 6 mm with nine concentrations attached to BHI-A medium, incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C in an anaerobic atmosphere, then sprayed MTT (3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenylttetrazoliumbromide) reagent and read a few moments later. For comparison, then used Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) 2 mg/ml. The statistical analysis with <em>t</em>-test and there was significant different if&nbsp; p&lt;0.05. The result showed that the higher concentration of UEB ethanol extract will increase the growth inhibition zone of <em>P. gingivalis</em> bacteria and reach maximum at 10 mg/ml concentration. The result of <em>t</em>-test showed no difference significant of <em>P. gingivalis</em> bacterial inhibition zone in the treatment group of 7.5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml concentration on CHX group. This study proves UEB ethanol extract can inhibit the growth of <em>P. gingivalis</em> bacteria<em>.</em> &nbsp;</p> Siti Nur Azizah Sinar Yani Sjarif Ismail Masyudhi Masyudhi Endang Sawitri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-26 2018-07-26 4 3 128 135 10.25026/jtpc.v4i3.151 THE ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTIVITY OF COMBINATION BANANA PEEL EXTRACT AND ORANGE PEEL EXTRACT <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Oxidation reactions on foods and drugs can be inhibit by using antioxidants that binding to free radicals and reactive molecules. The Ambonese banana (Musa paradisiaca) peel and orange (Citrus reticulata) peel have antioxidant activity potency. The aim of this research is knowing the antioxidant activity of combination Ambonese banana (Musa paradisiaca) peel and orange (Citrus reticulata) peel. IC<sub>50</sub> for antioxidant activity potency between Ambonese banana (Musa paradisiaca) peel and orange (Citrus reticulata) peel is expected to increase the antioxidant activity if used as combination that can inhibit oxidation reaction. The inhibit concentration of antioxidant activity is indicated by IC<sub>50</sub>. The compound that has the highest antioxidant activity will show lowest level of IC<sub>50</sub>. The antioxidant activity test was performed by DPPH method using UV-Vis spectrophotometer on 51</em><em>6 nm and color change of DPPH from purple to yellow when both of them react with antioxidant compound. The results of IC<sub>50</sub> of banana </em><em>peel extract </em><em>was 114 mcg / mL; IC<sub>50</sub> </em><em>of orange peel extract </em><em>was22.2 mcg / mL. The greatest inhibition of the combination of both extracts was 73.53% consisting of 25 μL (0,005%) sample of tangerine orange peel extract and 75 μL (0,015%).The biggest inhibition of the combination of both extracts was 73.53% consisting of 25 μL (0.005%) samples of tangerine orange peel extract and 75 μL (0.015%).</em></p> Ramadhani Dwi Sula Ulil Fikri Nurhakimah Elma Arifatul Sugito Ika Trisharyanti Dian Kusumowati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-01 2018-08-01 4 3 136 141 10.25026/jtpc.v4i3.178 EFFECTIVENESS USUAL COUNSELING BY PHARMACIST OF RSUD A.W. SJAHRANIE SAMARINDA TO IMPROVE MEDICATION COMPLIANCE IN HYPERTENSION <p style="text-align: justify;">Compliance to antihpertensive medications represents a success factor for blood pressure control in clinical practice. Medical non-compliance has been identified as a major public health problem in the treatment of hypertension. This study evaluated an additional usual counseling could achieve optimal BP control. This experimental study uses cohort study design using prospective patient data collection in patients with hypertension, and hypertension with complications at RSUD A.W.Sjahranie SAMARINDA from Juli 2014-Oktober 2014. Data were collected by interviews and questionnaires; meanwhile the patient's blood pressure data were taken from the medical record. A total of 61 patients. The results showed that there were not significant different in change BP control and compliance level <em>wilcoxcon</em> (p&gt;0,05). The compliance status in usual counseling relatively poor. Phamacist counseling are important to improve medication compliance in hypertension</p> Welinda Dyah Ayu Victoria Yulita Dewi Rahmawati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-05 2018-08-05 4 3 142 146 10.25026/jtpc.v4i3.172 REVIEW OF NATURAL REMEDIES FOR ACCELERATE DIABETIC WOUND HEALING <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Diabetic is a metabolic disorder disease leading to hyperglycemia because of lack of insulin secretion or </em><em>inadequate of </em><em>insulin activity. Indonesia has 9.600 plant species that have been used for health care and treatment of various diseases. Diabetic patients can experience a problem in the form of foot blood vessels disorders and if not treated properly will become wounds that are difficult to heal and easily develop into gangrene which is high risk of amputation. Therefore, this journal will discuss about natural remedies that can be used as a treatment in patients with diabetic wounds and several pharmacological testing performed for testing the diabetic wound healing activity . Various kinds of natural remedies such as Andredera cordifolia, Centella asiatica, Curcuma longa, Carica papaya and hone are proven to accelerate diabetic wound healing through various mechanisms. </em></p> Rr. Kirana Andranilla Yasmiwar Susilawati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-06 2018-08-06 4 3 147 153 10.25026/jtpc.v4i3.182