The Optimization of Essential Oil Extraction from Java Cardamom

  • Raissa Raissa Universitas Pertamina
  • Windi Cahya Amalia Universitas Pertamina
  • Meri Ayurini Universitas Pertamina
  • Khabib Khumaini Universitas Pertamina
  • Paramita Jaya Ratri Universitas Pertamina
Keywords: Cardamom, Amomum compactum, Essential Oil, Extraction, Steam Distillation, Simple Distillation


Indonesia is one of the largest spice-producing regions such as the Java Cardamom (Amomum compactum). The cardamom can be converted into derivative products in the form of cardamom essential oil. In this work, we attempted to extract the essential oil from the cardamom by comparing two methods of extraction which are the steam distillation and the simple distillation. The optimization factors considered on the extraction yield were solvent (ethyl acetate and n-hexane) and extraction time (3-6 h). The extraction yield obtained by both methods in ethyl acetate solvents was almost equal to that obtained in n-hexane. Also, the result obtained revealed that the extraction yield increased with time. The optimum essential oil yield was obtained by the simple distillation method in 6 hours duration time using n-hexane solvent giving the yield of 6.3 %. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the chemical composition of the extracted oil. The results showed that the chemical composition of the essential oils is different in each extraction time. The main compounds in all oil samples were eucalyptol and camphene among four other constituents. The concentration of eucalyptol reached an optimum (90.89 - 93.74 %) at 4 – 5 h of distillation times, while the concentration of camphene reached an optimum (52.98 %) at 6 h. The purity of the essential oil was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR). Moreover, this research will help to utilize the cardamom due to its main compounds that act as herbal medicine.


Download data is not yet available.


[1] M. Nesbitt, C. C. de Guzman, and J. S. Siemonsma, 2007. Plant Resources of South East Asia No. 13. Spices, Kew Bulletin.
[2] J. A. Lee, M. Y. Lee, I. S. Shin, C. S. Seo, H. Ha, and H. K. Shin, 2012. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Amomum Compactum on RAW 264.7 Cells via Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1, Archives of Pharmacal Research, 35, (4), 739–746.
[3] M. Simsek and R. Duman, 2017. Investigation of Effect of 1,8-Cineole on Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine Gluconate, Pharmacognosy Research, 9, (3), 234–237.
[4] Z. T. Jiang, X. Feng, R. Li, and Y. Wang, 2013. Composition Comparison of Essential Oils Extracted by Classical Hydro Distillation and Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation from Pimenta Dioica, Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants.
[5] K. H. Timotius, I. N. Sari, and A. W. Santoso, 2015. Major Bioactive Compounds of Pilis Plant Materials: A GC-MS Analysis, Pharmacognosy Communications, 5, (3), 190–196.
[6] M. T. Golmakani and K. Rezaei, 2008. Comparison of Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation Withthe Traditional Hydrodistillation Method in the Extractionof Essential Oils from Thymus Vulgaris L., Food Chemistry, 109, (4), 925–930.
[7] L. L. Dilworth, C. K. Riley, and D. K. Stennett, Plant Constituents: Carbohydrates, Oils, Resins, Balsams, and Plant Hormones, in Pharmacognosy: Fundamentals, Applications and Strategy, Jamaica: Elsevier Inc., 61–80.
[8] M. Golmohammadi, A. Borghei, A. Zenouzi, N. Ashrafi, and M. J. Taherzadeh, 2018. Optimization of Essential Oil Extraction from Orange Peels Using Steam Explosion, Heliyon, 4, (11), 1–18.
[9] T. J. Zachariah and N. K. Leela, Volatiles from Herbs and Spices, in Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Woodhead Publishing, 177–218.
[10] M. Tiwari and P. Kakkar, 2009. Plant Derived Antioxidants - Geraniol and Camphene Protect Rat Alveolar Macrophages against t-BHP Induced Oxidative Stress, Toxicology in Vitro, 23, (2), 295–310.
[11] G. I. K. Marei, M. A. Abdel Rasoul, and S. A. M. Abdelgaleil, 2012. Comparative Antifungal Activities and Biochemical Effects of Monoterpenes on Plant Pathogenic Fungi, Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 103 56–61.
[12] J. D. Adams, The Use of California Sagebrush (Artemisia Californica) Liniment to Control Pain, Pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceuticals, 1045–1053, 2012.
[13] I. Vallianou, N. Peroulis, P. Pantazis, and M. Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, 2011. Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity, PLoS ONE, 6, (11).
How to Cite
Raissa, R., Amalia, W. C., Ayurini, M., Khumaini, K., & Ratri, P. J. (2020). The Optimization of Essential Oil Extraction from Java Cardamom. Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry, 5(2), 125-129.