A Detail Review on Heart-Leaved Moonseed (Tinospora cordifolia) Medicinal Plant


  • Vinotha Sanmugarajah Unit of Siddha Medicine, University of Jaffna https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9672-2635
  • Gowri Rajkumar Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka
  • P.A.H.R. Panambara Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka




Heart-leaved moonseed, Tinospora cordifolia, Seenthil, Review, Pharmacology


Worldwide, a usage of herbal medicine is gradually increasing for the safety and maintains the health due to its lower side effects. Numerous medicinal plants are using by the healers and traditional physicians to control the disease conditions. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers (Menispermaceae Family) is distinguished as Heart-Leaved Moonseed herb of the Siddha Medicine which is practicing by Tamil speaking people in Sri Lanka. This present study emphases the detailed review of the pharmacological activities of the Tinospora cordifolia (T. cordifolia) based on the previous scientific studies and textbooks. Data were collected from all existing sources such as ancient and current indigenous text books, websites, proceedings, research and review articles and other related documents based on prepared data entry form. According to this study, T. cordifolia is an important traditional plant which has a variety of pharmacological activities and medicinal usage due to the numerous chemical constituents are present in the various part of this plant. As such, this review paper can serve as evidence for researchers to conduct future scientific research as well as clinical studies in Siddha Medicine.


Download data is not yet available.


Kumar DV, Geethanjali B, Avinash KO, et al., 2017. Tinospora cordifolia: the antimicrobial property of the leaves of amruthaballi. J Bacteriol Mycol Open Access. 5(5):363-371. DOI: 10.15406/jbmoa.2017.05.00147

Bhalerao et al., 2016. “Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers (Guduchi) - An Overview” IJGHC. 5 (1): 001-012.

Kirtikar, K.R., Basu. B.D., 1933. Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. 2 (Lalit Mohan Basu, leader Road, Allahabad); 77.

Meena, A.K., Singh, A., Panda, P., Mishra, S., Rao, M.M., 2010. Tinospora cordifolia: its bioactivities & evaluation of physicochemical properties. IJPPR, 2, 50-55

Sharma, P., Parmar, J., Sharma, P., Verma, P., Goyal, P.K., 2012. Radiation- induced testicular injury and its amelioration by T. cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal plant) extract. Evid based comp altern Med. 643-647.

Goel, H.C., Prasad, J., Singh, S., Sagar, R.K., Agrawala, P.K., Bala, M., Sinha, A.K., Dogra, R., 2004. Radioprotective potential of an herbal extract of Tinospora cordifolia J. Radiat. Res., 45, 61.

Sonkamble, V.V., Kamble, L.H., 2015. Anti-diabetic potential and identification of phytochemicals from Tinospora cordifoliaAm. J. Phytomed. Clin.Ther. 3, 97-110.

Gaur, L.B., Singh, S.P., Gaur, S.C., Bornare, S.S., Chavan, A.S., Sudhir Kumar, Mukh Ram., 2014. A Basic Information, Cultivation and Medicinal Use of Tinospora cordifolia. Pop. Kheti. 2(3):188- 192.

Mittal, J., Sharma, M.M., 2014. Tinospora cordifolia: a multipurpose medicinal plant-A review. Journal of Medicinal Plant Studies. 2(2): 32-47.

George, M., Joseph, L., Mathew, M. 2016. Tinospora cordifolia; A Pharmacological Update. Pharma Innov. 5(7): 108-111.

Sinha, K., Mishra N.P., Singh, J., Khanuja, S.P.S., 2004. Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) a reservoir plant for therapeutic applications Indian J. Tradit. Knowle. 3, 257-270.

Salkar, K., Chotalia, C., Salvi, R., 2017. Tinospora cordifolia: an antimicrobial and immunity enhancer plant Int. J. Sci. Res., 6, 1603-1607.

Upreti, P., Chauhan, R.S., 2018. Effect of leaf powder of giloy (Tinospora cordifolia) in fish feed on survival and growth of post larvae of Catla catla J. Appl. Nat. Sci. 10, 144-148.

Lalramnghinglova, H., 2003. Ethno-Medicinal plants of Mizoram Dehradun; Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. 293.

Sood, S.K., Parmar, S., Lakhanpal, T.N., 2005. Ethnic plants of India used in cancer cure. Dehradun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. 235.

Singh, K.K., Maheshwari, J.K.,Econ, J., 1983.Tax. Bot. 4(3): 829.

Bhatt, R.P., Sabnis, S.D., Econ, J., 1987. Tax. Bot. 9(1): 139.

Rege, N., Bapat, R. D., Koti, R., Desai, N. K., Dahanukar S., 1993. Immunotherapy with Tinospora cordifolia: A new lead in the management of obstructive jaundice by Tinospora cordifolia, Indian J Gastroenterol.12, 5.

Kirti Sinha, Mishra, N.P., Singh, J., Khanuja, S.P.S., 2004. Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), a reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: A Review. Indian journal of traditional Knowledge. 3(3): 257- 270.

Jamal, A., Abdul, R.K., Mohammad, K.A., 2016. Phytochemical, antioxidant and antiproliferative studies of some medicinal plants from Indian sub– continent. Britisj Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 11(6):1–11.

Khan, M.M., dul Haque, M.S., Chowdhury, M.S., 2016. Medicinal use of the unique plant Tinospora cordifolia: evidence from the traditional medicine and recent research Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2, 508-512.

Jeyachandran, R., Xavier, T.F., Anand, S.P., 2003. Antibacterial activity of stem extracts of Tinospora cordifolia (willd) hook Anc. Sci. Life. Res. 25, 40-43.

Narayanan, A.S., Raja, S.S., Ponmurugan, K., Kandekar, S.C., Natarajaseenivasan, K., Maripandi, A., Mandeel, Q.A., 2011. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Benef Microbes. 2(3): 235-43.

Shanthi, V., Nelson, R., 2013. Anitbacterial activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Hook. F. Thoms on urinary tract pathogens. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2(6): 190-194.

Singh, K., Panghal, M., Kadyan, S., Chaudhary, U., Yadav, J.P., 2014. Antibacterial Activity of Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles from Tinospora cordifolia against Multi Drug Resistant Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Patients. J Nanomed Nanotechnol. 5(2):1 -6.

Francesca B., Manuela M., Fabiana A., Ferruccio P., Giovanna A.G., 2014. Ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia and Alstonia scholaris show antimicrobial activity towards clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant and carbapenemase-producing bacteria. Natural Product Research. 28(18):1438-1445.

Allemailem, K.S., Almatroudi, A., Alsahli, M.A., Khan, A., Khan, M.A., 2019. Tinospora cordifolia aqueous extract alleviates cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression, toxicity and systemic candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice: in vivo study in comparison to antifungal drug fluconazole Curr. Pharmaceut. Biotechnol. 20, 1-5.

Agarwal, S., Ramamurthy, P.H., Fernandes, B. 2019. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Tinospora cordifolia against Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study. Dent Res J.;16(1):24-8.

Sharma, P., Dwivedee, B. P., Bisht, D., Dash, A. K., & Kumar, D. 2019. The chemical constituents and diverse pharmacological importance of Tinospora cordifolia. Heliyon, 5(9), e02437.

Rohit S., Hetal Amin, Galib, Pradeep K. P., 2015. Antidiabetic claims of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers: critical appraisal and role in therapy. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 5(1): 68-78.

Patel, M.B., Mishra, S., 2016. Hypoglycemic activity of alkaloidal fraction of Tinospora cordifolia Pharma Innovation. 5, 104.

Kannadhasan, R., Venkataraman, S., 2012. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidaemic Activity of Sedimental Extract of Tinospora cordifolia In Streptozotocin Induced Type 2 Diabetes. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci.; 4(3): 520-527.

Stanely Mainzen P.P, Menon V.P., 2003. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots in chemical induced diabetes in rats. Phytother Res. 17(4): 410-3. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1130.

Chandra S.S, Amit Kumar S., Sonam K., Ratanlal V., 2013. AntiDiabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Tinospora cordifolia Leaves. Int. J. of Drug Discovery & Herbal Research. 3(1): 601-604.

Shivananjappa, M.M., Muralidhara., 2012. Abrogation of maternal and fetal oxidative stress in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat by dietary supplements of Tinospora cordifolia, Nutrition. 28(5):581–7.

Singh, D., Chaudhuri, P.K., 2017. Chemistry and pharmacology of Tinospora cordifolia Nat. Prod. Commun. 12, 299-308.

Sarma, D.N.K., Khosa, R.L., Chaurasia, J.P.N., Sahai, M., 1996. Antistress activity of Tinospora cordifolia and Centella asiatica extracts Phytother Res. 10, 181-184.

Baghel, P., 2017. Plant of versatile vroperties of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) IJAIR. 5, 751-75.

Lannert, H., Hoyer, S., 1998. Intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin causes long-term diminutions in learning and memory abilities and in cerebral energy metabolism in adult rats). Behavioral Neuroscience. 112(5): 1199-208.

Upadhyay, P.R., Sharma, V., Anita, K.V., 2011. Assessment of the multifaceted immunomodulatory potential of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia. Res J Chem Sci. 1:71-79.

Vaibhav A., Arun Kumar W., 2012. Biotechnological Approach to Evaluate the Immunomodulatory Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Tinospora cordifolia Stem (Mango Plant Climber). Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 11 (3): 863-872.

Umretia, B., Vaishnav, P., Patgiri, B., Shukla, V., 2013. Immunomodulatory activity of Guduchi Ghana (Aqueous Extract of Tinospora cordifolia Miers). NJIRM. 4(3): 90-96.

Salkar, K., Suthar, A., Chotalia, C., 2014. Study of Immunomodulatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia extract. IJAPBC. 3(4):880-883.

Castillo, A.L., Ramos, J.D.A., De Francia J.L., Quilala, P.F., Dujunco, M.U., 2014. Immunomodulatory Effects of Tinospora cordifolia Lotion on Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 Levels in ScabiesInfected Pediatric Patients: A Single Blind, Randomized Trial. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res. 6(3):204-210.

Sharma, U., Bala, M., Kumar, N., Singh, B., Munshi, R.K., Bhalerao, S., 2012. Immunomodulatory active compounds from Tinospora cordifolia. J Ethnopharmacol. 141(3):918-926. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.027.

Ikram, M., Khattak, S.G., Gilani, S.N., 1987. Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II). J Ethnopharmacol. 19:185-192.

Stanely, P.P.M., Menon, V.P., Gunasekharam, G., 1999. Hypolipidaemic action of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan-induced diabetic rats J. Ethnopharmacol. 64, 53-57.

Kalikaer, M.V., Thawani, V.R., Varadpande, U.K., Santakke, S.D., Singh, R.P., Khiyani, R.K., 2008. Immunomodulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia extracts in HIV positive patients Indian J. Pharmacol. 40, 107-110.

Akhtar, S., 2010.Use of Tinospora cordifolia in HIV infection Indian J. Pharmacol., 42, 57-63.

Sharma, V., Kaushik, S., Pandit, P. 2019a. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from medicinal plants and evaluation of their antiviral potential against chikungunya virus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol.;103(2):881-91.18.

Sagar V, Kumar AHS. Efficacy of Natural Compounds from Tinospora cordifolia against SARS-CoV-2Protease, Surface Glycoprotein and RNA Polymerase. BEMS Reports. 2020;6(1):6-8.

Modi, B., Kumari, K., Shrestha, S.J., Shrestha, P., Basnet, A., Tiwari, I., Aryal, S.P. 2021. Review Article of Morphology, Biological Activity, Chemical Composition, and Medicinal Value of Tinospora Cordifolia (willd.) Miers, Nepal,10.22034/AJCB.2021.118153

Shanbhag, T., Shenoy, S., Rao, M.C., 2005. Wound healing profile of Tinospora cordifolia Indian Drugs. 42, 217-221.

Abiramasundari, G., Sumalatha, K.R., Sreepriya, M., 2012. Effects of Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae) on the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast model systems in-vitro J. Ethnopharmacol. 141, 474-480.

Kapur, P., Wuttke, W., Jarry, H., Seidlova, D.W., 2010. Beneficial effects of beta-ecdysone on the joint, epiphyseal cartilage tissue and trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats Phytomedicine. 17, 350-5.

Gao, L., Cai, G., 2008. Beta-ecdysterone induces osteogenic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and relieves osteoporosis Biol. Pharm. Bull. 31, 2245-9.

Birla, H., Rai, S. N., Singh, S.S., Zahra, W., Rawat, A., Tiwari, N., Singh, R.K., Pathak, A., Singh, S.P., 2019. Tinospora cordifolia suppresses neuroinflammation in Parkinsonian mouse model Neuro Molecular Med., 21, 42-53.

Sharma, B., Dabur, R., 2016. Protective effects of Tinospora cordifolia on hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicity induced by chronic and moderate alcoholism Alcohol Alcohol, 51, 1-10.

Ali, H., Dixit, S., 2013. Extraction optimization of Tinospora cordifolia and assessment of the anticancer activity of its alkaloid palmatine. Scientific World Journal; 28: 376216.

Rahul Verma, Hotam Singh Chaudhary, Agrawal, R.C., 2011. Evaluation of Ant carcinogenic and Ant mutagenic Effect of Tinospora cordifolia in Experimental Animals. J Chem Pharm Res. 3(6): 877-881.

Mishra, R., Kaur, G., 2013. Aqueous Ethanolic Extract of Tinospora cordifolia as a Potential Candidate for Differentiation Based Therapy of Glioblastomas. PLoS ONE. 8(10): e78764.

Bala, M., Pratap, K., Verma, P.K., Singh, B., Padwad, Y., 2015. Validation of ethnomedicinal potential of Tinospora cordifolia for anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and quantification of bioactive molecules by HPTLC. J Ethnopharmacol. 175(4):131–137.

Gupta, R., Sharma, V., 2011. Ameliorative effects of Tinospora cordifolia root extract on histopathological and biochemical changes induced by aflatoxin-b (1) in mice kidney. Toxicol Int. 18:94-98.

Sharma, V., Pandey, D. 2010. Protective role of Tinospora cordifolia against lead induced hepatotoxicity. Toxic Int. 17:12-17.

Mehra, R., Naved, T., Arora, M., Madan, S., 2013. Standardization and evaluation of formulation parameters of Tinospora cordifolia tablet J. Adv. Pharm. Educ. Res. 3, 440-449.

George, M., Josepha, L., Mathew, M., 2016a. Research on screening of learning and memory enhancing the activity of whole plant extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Pharma Innovation, 5, 104-107.

Prince, S.M., Menon, V.P., 2001. Antioxidant action of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan diabetic rats Phytother Res., 15, 213-218.

Prince, S.M., Menon, V.P., 2003. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots in chemical induced diabetes in rats Phytother Res. 17, 410-413.

Prince, P.S, Padmanabhan, M., Menon, V.P., 2004. Restoration of antioxidant defense by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic liver and kidney. Phytother Res.18 (9):785-7. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1567.

Sivakumar, V., Rajan M.S.D., 2010. Antioxidant effect of Tinospora cordifolia extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 72, 795.

Upadhyay, N., Ganie, S.A., Agnihotri, R.K., Sharma, R., 2014. Free radical scavenging activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) Mier J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., 3, 63-69.

Bafna, P.A., Balaraman, R., 2005. Anti-ulcer and anti-oxidant activity of pepticare, a herbomineral formulation Phytomedicine, 12, 264-270.

Jayaprakash, R., Ramesh, V., Sridhar, M.P., Sasikala, C., 2015.Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethyl nitrosamine) induced liver cancer in male wister albino rats J. Pharm. Bio Allied Sci., 7 (S1) 40-45.

Premanath, R., Lakshmidevi, N., 2010. Studies on the anti-oxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Miers.) leaves using in-vitro models J. Am. Sci, 6 pp. 736-743.

Sarma, D.N.K., Khosa, R.L., Chaurasia, J.P.N., Sahai, M., 1995. Phytotherapy Research, 9, 589.

Siddalingappa, C.M, Rajesh.T, Kudagi, B.L., Krishnakanth, K, Sujith, T.R., 2011. Evaluation of analgesic and anti- inflammatory activities of Tinospora cordifolia in rodents. International Journal of Basic Medical Science. Vol:2, Issue: 5.

Lakshmi, D.P., Jagadeesh, Supriya P., Sowmya, 2016. Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory Activity of Tinospora Cordifolia (Guduchi) and Valeriana Wallichi (Tagara) In Albino Rats. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 11(2); Ver. IV: PP 18-22.

Gupta, R.S., Sharma, A., 2003. Antifertility effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) stem extract in male rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 41(8):885-9. PMID: 15248490.




How to Cite

Sanmugarajah, V., Rajkumar, G., & Panambara, P. (2022). A Detail Review on Heart-Leaved Moonseed (Tinospora cordifolia) Medicinal Plant. Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry, 6(2), 154–166. https://doi.org/10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.466