Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry</a> (p-ISSN: 2087-7099, e-ISSN: <a href=";1418100043&amp;1&amp;&amp;" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2407-6090</a>) is a Biannual (june and December), international, open access (Indexed in <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SINTA</a> 3 (SK No. 10/E/KPT/2019) start from Volume 4 No. 4 2018 by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GARUDA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Crossref</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href=";type=all&amp;oaboost=1&amp;ling=1&amp;name=&amp;thes=&amp;refid=dcresen&amp;newsearch=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BASE</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Moraref</a>, <a href=";user=6NteZMwAAAAJ" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>), journal dedicated to various disciplines of pharmaceutical and allied sciences. The journal had been established in 2010, and online publication was begun in 2014. Since 2018, the journal has been published in English by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Faculty of Pharmacy</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Mulawarman</a> (UNMUL), Samarinda, Indonesia in and only receives manuscripts in English. </p> Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia en-US Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2087-7099 Front Cover, Editorial Information, Table of Content, Back Cover Journal Editor Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-09-21 2022-09-21 6 1 i vii 10.25026/jtpc.v6i1.484 Therapeutic potential of Opuntia ficus indica extract against cadmium-induced osteoporosis and DNA bone damage in male rats The purpose of the present study was to assess the protective effects of ‘Opuntia ficus indica’ (family Cactaceae) against osteoporosis induced by cadmium chloride in female Wistar rats. Experiments were carried out on 36 male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) divided into four groups of nine each: a control group, a group treated with cadmium (3,5 mg/kg /day) by subcutaneous injection, a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100 mg/Kg/day) by gavage, and a group treated with opuntia extract then treated with cadmium. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals from each group were rapidly sacri?ced by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Bone toxicity was estimated by examining femoral length and weight, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D3 and alkaline phsphatase (ALP) levels, oxidative status and DNA aspects in femur tissue. Results showed that cadmium could induce hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, Vit D deficiency, increase in ALP level, and decrease in femur weight and length. Also, an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically signi?cant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in bone tissue of cadmium-treated group compared with the control group. In addition, histological analysis in bone tissue of cadmium-induced rats revealed pronounced morphological alterations with areas of bone resorption and a loss of normal architecture of femur diaphysis bone as well as DNA fragmentation. However, administration of cactus extract attenuated cadmium-induced bone damage. The protective effect of the plant can be attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis. These findings indicate that ‘Opuntia ficus indica’ extract, can be used as a new option in nutraceutical field. Jihen Taleb Saida Ncibi Intidhar Bkhairia Amani Smida Lamia Mabrouki Moncef Nasri Lazhar Zourgui Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 1 1 14 Identification of Factors Causing Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) of Under-Fives in Community Health Center Work Area in North Jayapura Sub-District Background: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is an acute infection of the upper and lower respiratory tract of organs. This infection is caused by the virus, fungi, and bacteria that begin with fever and one or more symptoms such as throat pain, difficulty swallowing, flu, and wet or dry cough. Riskesdas (Basic Health Research) categorizes Papua province in five highest areas with the infectious disease of air such as ARI and Pneumonia. Based on the annual data of Jayapura Public Health office of disease prevention and control sector reported that ARI was included in ten highest types of infectious diseases in Jayapura city suffered by under-fives. Objective: This research aimed to identify the factors caused by the IRA in the Community Health Center work area in North Jayapura Sub-district, Jayapura City, Papua Province. Methodology: A descriptive quantitative method with cross-sectional research design was used in this study. Sample of 100 under-fives in the Community Health Center of North Jayapura Sub-district were selected for this study. The technique was purposive sampling and the data collections were questionnaires and observation (done in the respondent’s houses). This research was done in Juni to August 2019. Results & Discussion: The results were presented through the table form and showed that the causes of ARI were from the under-fives, family, and environment. The conclusion of this research: smoking behavior of family is the biggest causative factor of ARI. Reychell Mirino Dary Dary Rifatolistia Rifatolistia Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 1 15 20 10.25026/jtpc.v6i1.271 Use of CMC Na as Gelling Agent in Nanoemulgel Formulation of Methanol Extract of Sappan Wood (Caesalpinia sappan L) Sappan wood ( Caesalpinia sappan L.) contains brazilin including isoflavonoids which act as antimicrobials (against bacteria on skin) and antioxidants. Nano technology increases surface area, enhance stability, reduces skin irritation, protects from degradation, and has good drug delivery. Nano emulsion preparations can help permeability of the drug on the membrane surface. Nanoemulgel preparations can provide stability and good drug release compared to mixing drugs directly in a gel base. The purpose of this study were to determine the effect of different concentrations of CMC-Na gelling agents and which concentration of CMC-Na gelling agents that can produce the best nanoemulgel preparations. Nanoemulsion made from isopropyl myristate as oil phase, tween 80 as surfactant and polyethylenglycol as co-surfactant. Nanoemulsion formulations were tested by measurement of % transmittance by UV-Vis spectrophotometry at a wavelength 650nm. Nanoemulgel is made from nano emulsions used basis of CMC-Na at concentrations 3%, 4%, and 5%. The results showed percent transmittance was 71.86%. The results of physical quality and stability tests of the nanomulgel wood preparations showed an influence on the physical properties such as adhesion, dispersion and viscosity, the greater concentration of CMC-Na gelling agents in nanoemulgel preparations, the greater values adhesion and viscosity, while the spreadability was smaller. Concentration of CMC-Na gelling agent that produced the best of sappan wood nanoemulgel ( Caesalpinia sappan L.) was 5% that stable by freeze-thaw testing. Dwi Saryanti Iwan Setiawan Hendri Hari Dayanto Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 1 21 29 10.25026/jtpc.v6i1.276 In Silico Study of Pulutan (Urena lobata) Leaf Extract as Anti Inflammation and their ADME Prediction <p>Inflammation is the basic for the pathogenesis of several diseases both of degenerative and non-degenerative disease. <em>Urena lobata </em>is a medicinal plant that can be found in Indonesia and has been used traditionally to cure influenza, inflammation and fever. However, there have been few reports about their anti-inflammatory activity and their mechanism action are still unclear. The aim of study to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of active substances from <em>U.lobata</em> leaf and their pharmacokinetic property through <em>in silico </em>study. <em>lobata</em> leaf was extracted by digeration methods using ethanol solvent. Therefore<em>, </em>the active substances in the extract was analyzed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectra (LC-MS). Pharmacokinetic property and physicochemical of active compounds were evaluated using pkCSM online tool. Anti-inflammatory activity of <em>U. lobata </em>active compound on phospholipase-A2 (PLA-2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and lipoxygenase-5 (LOX-5) were evaluated by <em>in silico</em> study. Ethanolic extract of <em>U. lobata</em> contained five active compound, there are stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol mangiferin, gossypetin&nbsp;and chrysoeriol. Molecular docking study indicated stigmasterol and ?-sitosterol of <em>U. lobata</em> have a strong activity as anti-inflammatory based on the estimation of inhibition constant (Ki) value against PLA2 and COX-2. Meanwhile, mangiferin and gossypetin have a stronger anti-inflammatory effect on LOX-5 among others compound. <em>U. lobata</em> has anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition on COX-2 greater than on PLA2 and LOX-5.</p> Doti Wahyuningsih Yudi Purnomo Andri Tilaqza Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 1 30 37 10.25026/jtpc.v6i1.323 Formulation and Evaluation of an Antifungal Ointment Containing Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) Essential Oil as Active Principle <p>The increase incidence of fungal infections, the resistance of fungal strains to existing drugs and the toxicity assimilated to long term usage of antifungal drugs as prompted the search of new alternative from natural source. In this study we have evaluated the antifungal properties of the essential oil of the rhizome of Z. officinale, a plant known for its various biological properties and used in food industry as spice. An antifungal ointment with Z. officinale essential oil as active principle was also formulated and its antifungal properties evaluated. GC/MS analysis identified Zingiberene (22.36%), 1.8-cineole (15.54%), geranial (11.91%), camphene (11.09%) and geraniol (8.75%) as the main constituents of Z. officinale essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil showed a significant antifungal activity against clinical isolate of Candida krusei with MIC 800 ppm by microdilution method. The formulated ointment containing 10 % glycerol, 60 % vaseline, 8 % hydrosol, 20% lanolin and 2% Zingiber officinale essential oil (Formule E1) was found to follow pharmaceutical standards according to European Pharmacopeia and also showed good antifungal properties</p> Nelly Tagnin Nkuete Sandra Leila Nnanga Stephanie Tamdem Guetchueng Nga Nnanga Joseph Ngoupayo Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 1 38 48 10.25026/jtpc.v6i1.404 Physicochemical Parameters and Purification of Pulp Effluent (Black Liquor) <p>Pulp and paper Industry poses a great significant problem in Environmental pollution and they consume high energy, water and resources. The present study was undertaken to purify pulp effluent (black liquor) using sand bed filters and adsorption method (Activated Carbon). The physicochemical parameters carried out were pH, colour, temperature, turbidity, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) using standard methods by American Public Health Association (APHA). The results obtained for black liquor and treated effluent were; colour (dark brown), pH (11.59 &amp; 9.14), temperature (31&nbsp;&amp; 30 ), turbidity (1.78 &amp;0.77 NTU), TA (10,000mg/L &amp; 300mg/L), TH (325 mg/L &amp; 220 mg/L), COD (2663 mg/L &amp; 174.85 mg/L), TSS (0.09 mg/L &amp; 0.00 mg/L), TS (0.9 mg/L &amp; 0.17 mg/L), TDS (1354 mg/L) respectively. &nbsp;Highly significant differences were found between the effluent and treated water. The results indicated that pulp and paper Industrial effluents are highly polluted and can be toxic or harmful to human beings when released into water bodies without being treated.</p> Oluwatosin Shokunbi R.O Omenka Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 1 49 54 10.25026/jtpc.v6i1.394 Formulation of Hand Sanitizer Gel Jatropha Sap (Jatropha curcas L) as Antiseptic <p>Jatropha curcas (<em>Jatropha curcas</em> L) is a medicinal plant that is often used, especially its sap. Jatropha sap contains secondary metabolite compounds in the form of saponins, flavonoids, and tannins which have antibacterial activity. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of Jatropha sap against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, to determine the antibacterial activity of jatropha hand sanitizer gel preparation against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, and to find out the best formula for hand sanitizer gel from jatropha that has antibacterial effectiveness against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. This research was conducted by formulating hand sanitizer gel from jatropha sap with various concentrations. Based on the research data, the best data obtained for the concentration of jatropha sap which has antibacterial activity against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is 10% with inhibition values of 13,33 ± 0,57 and 12,86 ± 0,51 the best concentrations of gel preparations. Hand sanitizer from jatropha sap which has antibacterial activity against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is 10% with inhibitory value of 12,63 ± 0,35 and 12,10 ± 0,17 and the best formula for hand sanitizer gel contains jatropha sap fence with a concentration of 5% with a diameter value of 6,36 cm, pH 4,89, a viscosity of 4,60 ± 0,14 Pa.S, a clear whitish color with a gel-shaped texture and a homogeneous preparation.</p> Siswati Siswati Fika Aryati Angga Cipta Narsa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 1 55 63 10.25026/jtpc.v6i1.333 Separation of Gadolinium(III) from Terbium(III) by the Liquid-Liquid Extraction Method with Dibutyldithiophosphate as the Extractant <p>The purpose of this research is to separate gadolinium(III) from terbium(III), by the liquid-liquid extraction method, with the extractant dibutyl dithiophosphate. Gadolinium(III) and terbium(III) have been selected in this study to see if the two metallic ions still could be separated although they have only one difference in atomic number, and in fact, terbium (<sub>65</sub>Tb) is the next to gadolinium(<sub>64</sub>Gd), in the lanthanide series. Also besides, the two metals have been found together in the same mineral such as gadolinite, and in some other minerals in Indonesia. Extraction parameters have been firstly selected and extraction conditions have been optimized as well, using the experimental design of Plackett Burman. Thus, experiments have been done to select which of the nine parameters (i.e. Gd(III) and Tb(III) concentrations, the concentration of the extractant (dibutyl dithiophosphate), pH, volume ratio of aqueous phase to the organic phase, extraction temperature, shaking rate, shaking time, resting time (after shaking), have their significant effect on the extraction efficiency and separation. The data resulted&nbsp; from this study show that there were five of the nine factors studied that determine the extraction efficiency and separation. They were (with its respective optimum value in the bracket): Gadolinium concentration [Gd(III)](5 ppm), terbium concentration [Tb(III)](5 ppm), pH(3.0), shaking time (10 minutes), and rest time after shaking (10 minutes).</p> Senadi Budiman Arie Hardian Lisda Virdasari Nurdeni Nurdeni Herman Herman Abdul Mutalib Anni Anggraeni Husein H. Bahti Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 1 64 70 10.25026/jtpc.v6i1.430 Imunomodulator Activity of Three Types “Kayu Kuning” Borneo <p>The immune system is a system that plays a role in maintaining the integrity of the body against the dangers that various foreign objects can cause. Immunomodulators are substances or substances that can change/modify the immune system. Empirically, Kayu Kuning or Yellow Wood is used as a cleaner for post-partum conditions. Yellow wood in East Kalimantan is the name for three species, namely Arcangelisia Flava, Fibraurea tinctoria, and Coscinium fensteratum. With the approach of improving the immune system and metabolism, immunomodulatory tests carried out on three types of yellow wood found in Borneo Island. The immunomodulatory activity of Yellow wood&nbsp; steam extract in the non-specific immune response test used phagocytic index and organ index parameters where BALB/c female mice were randomly divided into 16 treatment groups which included a normal group, an immunostimulant comparison group (Levamisole 2.5 mg/kg body weight), an immunosuppressant comparison group (Methylprednisolone 40mg/kg BW), a test extract group with a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, for the ethanolic extracts of A. Flava, F. tinctoria and C. fenestratum, respectively. Based on the study results, it means that the methanol extract of A. Flava methanol extract had immunostimulating activity, while the methanol extract of F. tinctoria and C. fenestratum showed an immunosuppressant effect</p> Dwi Hadi Setya Palupi Riski Sulistiarini Vita Olivia Siregar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 1 71 75 10.25026/jtpc.v6i1.375 Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Miang Bean Leaves (Mucuna pruriens) <p>Inflammation is a serious health problem that needs treatment. The use of steroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can actually relieve inflammatory reactions well, but their long-term use can have many side effects and are uneconomical. Therefore, the use of natural ingredients that are effective and economical is needed. One of the plants that are considered anti-inflammatory is the leaves of miang beans (Mucuna pruriens). The purpose of compiling this narrative review is to analyze the phytochemical content of miang beans leaves and its mechanisms for inflammatory reactions. The narrative study of this preparation was carried out using the literature study method from August to September 2020. The phytochemical content of miang bean leaves are alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cyanogenic glycosides, and tannins. Phytochemicals that have a direct anti-inflammatory effect are alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. Alkaloids are antibacterial. If there are bacteria that cause inflammation, the alkaloids will damage the bacterial peptidoglycan cell walls, thus causing bacterial cell death and preventable inflammatory reactions. Flavonoids have anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting macrophages from producing NO (nitric oxide) and inhibiting the cyclooxygenase pathway. Saponins affect the inflammatory reaction by inhibiting the lipoxygenase pathway and inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators. Meanwhile, tannins affect the inflammatory reaction by inhibiting macrophages from producing ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species). Potential which is fatal because it can turn into cyanide acid. However, the content of these cyanogenic glycosides can be minimized by drying at low temperatures. So, mung bean leaves are effective as anti-inflammatory drugs because the alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins they contain are anti-inflammatory.</p> Fadilaturahmah Fadilaturahmah Firman Syukri Yona Afriani Putra Santoso Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 1 76 83 10.25026/jtpc.v6i1.284 Potential and Constraints of Biopharmaceutical Plants in East Kalimantan Province <p>Biopharmaceutical plants (drugs) in East Kalimantan Province have tremendous potential for the Farmers' Economy in particular and the Economy of Society in general. Farmers have not felt this potential because it faces existing obstacles. In this study, the Pharmaceutical Business Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mulawarman University, will be analyzed for its role in finding solutions to existing obstacles. Research results are expected to be helpful in terms of the resource-advantage theory and in terms of Implications that can be done by Stakeholders, which aim that the potential of Biopharmaceutical Crops can bring the welfare of Farmers and Communities.</p> Junaidin Junaidin Supriatno Salam Erwin Samsul Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 1 84 87 10.25026/jtpc.v6i1.350