Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href="https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry</a>&nbsp;(p-ISSN: 2087-7099, e-ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="http://issn.pdii.lipi.go.id/issn.cgi?daftar&amp;1418100043&amp;1&amp;&amp;" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2407-6090</a>)&nbsp;is a Biannual, international, open access (Indexed in&nbsp;<a href="http://sinta2.ristekdikti.go.id/journals/detail?id=227" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SINTA</a>&nbsp;3 (SK No. 10/E/KPT/2019) start from Volume 4 No. 4 2018 by&nbsp;<a href="https://ristekdikti.go.id/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://garuda.ristekdikti.go.id/journal/view/13883" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GARUDA</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2407-6090" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/details?id=50102" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=Journal+of+Tropical+Pharmacy+and+Chemistry" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Crossref</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.citefactor.org/impact-factor/impact-factor-of-journal-Journal-of-Tropical-Pharmacy-and-Chemistry.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://index.pkp.sfu.ca/index.php/browse/index/2540" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=Journal+of+Tropical+Pharmacy+and+Chemistry&amp;type=all&amp;oaboost=1&amp;ling=1&amp;name=&amp;thes=&amp;refid=dcresen&amp;newsearch=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BASE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://moraref.or.id/browse/index/1012" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Moraref</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://scholar.google.co.id/citations?hl=en&amp;user=6NteZMwAAAAJ" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>), journal dedicated to various disciplines of pharmaceutical and allied sciences. The journal had been established in 2010, and online publication was begun in 2014. Since 2018, the journal has been published in English by&nbsp;<a href="https://farmasi.unmul.ac.id/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Faculty of Pharmacy</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.unmul.ac.id/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Mulawarman</a>&nbsp;(UNMUL), Samarinda, Indonesia in and only receives manuscripts in English.&nbsp;</p> Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia en-US Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2087-7099 Test of the Aphrodisiac Effect of Ethanol Extract of Roots, Stems and Leaves of Packaged Plants (Smilax rotundifolia) on Male White Rats (Sprague Dawley) https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/286 Developing countries use medicinal plants for aphrodisiac treatment, one of which is a pack plant (Smilax rotundifolia) which is commonly used to enlarge male genitalia in Papua Indonesia. Because these claims are not scientifically tested and proven, at this time This study aims to determine the effect of the ethanol extract of S. rotundifolia stem and leaf tubers on the parameters of sexual behavior in male Sprague Dawley rats. As well as fear the most effective plant parts have aphrodisiac activity. Thirty rats were divided into 5 groups (A-E) consisting of group A given 0.5% Na CMC colloid solution (normal control), group B given X-gra® suspension dosage 51.37 mg / kgBW (control positive), group C was given root ethanol extract dosage 200mg / kgBB, group D was given stem ethanol extract dosage 200mg / kgBB and group E was given leaf ethanol extract dosage 200mg / kgBB. The aphrodisiac test was observed on the 31st day with a ratio of male and female rats (1: 2). All parameters tested in the extract group showed significant differences with the normal group. This showed an aphrodisiac effect in all extract groups. The 200 mg / KgBB stem extract group reduced latent rates and intromission mounts as well as increased copulation rates, showing a marked increase in the number of intromissions, reduced ejaculatory latency and inter-intromission interval, and increased ejaculation frequency. which was not significant in the X-gra group (positive control) (p <0.05). As an extract of the roots, stems and leaves of S. rotundifolia, it shows aphrodisiac effects, but the stem extract of S. rotundifolia is the most effective in stimulating sexual behavior parameters in male rats. Kiki Rizki Handayani Ayu Wulandari Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 280 285 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.286 Proximate Composition, In vitro Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Adansonia digitata and Belanites aegyptiaca Seeds https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/296 This study evaluated the nutritional and medicinal properties of seeds from Adansonia digitata (BSF) and Balanite aegyptiaca (DDSF) plant. Proximate chemical composition, mineral elements composition, flavonoids, phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and anti-inflammatory properties were studied. Results obtained revealed that DDSF had the highest moisture, crude fat and crude protein content of 7.66 %, 42.80 %, 20.37 % respectively, whilst BSF gave the highest ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate content. Elemental analysis revealed BSF had the highest Mg content (313.65 mg/100g) and DDSF gave the highest Ca content (118.62 mg/100g). Additionally, DDSF gave the highest total phenolics (18.89 mg TAE/ 100 g), total flavonoids (8.80 mg QE/ 100 g) as well as the highest total antioxidant capacity of (19.62 mg AAE/ 100 g) dry of extract. Based on results obtained in this study, seeds obtained from the Adansonia digitata and Balanite aegyptiaca could be a potential source of functional food and antioxidant agents. Mercy Badu Mary-Magdalene Pedavoah Nathaniel O Boadi Irene Y Dzaye Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 286 298 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.296 Isolation and Evaluation of Antibacterial Potential Test of Plant Carthamus oxycantha https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/343 <p>The present investigation was initiated to find a suitable alternative to synthetic antibiotics for the management of diseases caused by bacteria. <em>Carthamus oxycantha</em>.L locally known as wild safflower member of family <em>Asteraceae</em> that grows wildly. The study was conducted using as Agar well diffusion to trace the antibacterial potential for to evaluate the efficiency of ethanolic extract of <em>Carthamus oxycantha</em> with concentration of 05, 10, 15, and 20 mg/ml against gram-positive <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and gram-negative<em> Escherichia Coli </em>species and them compared with that of Clindamycin, Ampicillin and Kanamycin (10 mg). Zone of inhibition for the extracts were 10.667 to 20.00 mm as compared to standard drug Clindamycin, Ampicillin and kanamycin (15.00-20.00 mm). Antibacterial assays indicates that <em>Carthamus oxycantha</em> has potential natural antimicrobial agents against <em>E-coli </em>and<em> S. aureus</em>. The findings of the present study suggested that ethanolic extract of <em>C. oxycantha</em> has strong potential to serve as possible antibacterial.</p> Amir Hassan Ibad Ullah Waqas Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 299 308 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.343 Quality Control and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Stem Bark of Chlorophora regia A. Chev. (Moraceae) https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/311 <p>This study sought to develop a validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quality control of the stem bark ingredients and its finished products and investigate the synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of the phytochemical constituents of <em>C. regia</em> stem bark. Fractionation and isolation of biomarkers were carried out by column chromatography on silica gel and monitored by thin-layer chromatography. The isolated biomarkers were characterized based on their melting points and extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D NMR). The chromatographic separation was investigated and developed for the analysis of the biomarkers using µBondapak<sup>TM</sup> C18 (3.9×300 mm, 5 µm) as stationary phase. The mobile phase composition of 0.1 % trifluoroacetic acid as solvent A, and methanol as solvent B with gradient elution was finally selected. The carrageenan-induced edema in a 7-day-old chick model was used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the stem bark extract and compared to diclofenac sodium as a reference drug<em>.</em> Two compounds were successfully isolated and identified, as Regiafuran A (<strong>1</strong>) and 3,5,7,4’-Tetrahydroxy-2’-methoxyflavonol (<strong>2</strong>). The compounds were employed as biomarkers in the RP-HPLC method development. The developed method was validated and was successfully used to quantify the amount of <strong>1</strong> and <strong>2</strong> in the stem bark to be 0.224% ± 0.056%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub> and 0.354% ± 0.041%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub> respectively. The crude extract showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity compared to the reference drug, diclofenac. The method demonstrated acceptable levels of accuracy, precision, specificity, and robustness hence can be successfully adopted for routine quality control and standardization of the stem bark of <em>C. regia</em>. The stem bark of the plant exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity.</p> Isaiah Amoo James Oppong-Kyekyeku Eric Boakye-Gyasi Samuel Asare-Nkansah Joseph Kwasi Adu Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 309 323 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.311 Quality Test of Extemporaneously Prepared Tramadol and Paracetamol Capsules Combination Derived From a Private Hospital in Semarang https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/287 <p>Tramadol and paracetamol are analgesic drugs that are often combined and made in the form of extemporaneously prepared capsules dosage form to treat moderate to severe pain management. This study aims to determine the quality of prescribed medication of extemporaneously prepared tramadol and paracetamol capsules combination taken from a private hospital in Semarang covering weight uniformity, moisture content, disintegration, and content uniformity. This type of research is a descriptive observational cross-sectional design. Samples were taken using simple random sampling at a pharmaceutical installation in a private hospital in Semarang. The observation result from four types of testing was compared against the standard values of each test’s parameter listed in the Indonesian Pharmacopoeia V. The results are, samples meet the weight uniformity test with an acceptance value of 7.34%; meet the moisture content test with an average moisture content of 2.647% for the first day and 3.04% for the seventh day; meet the disintegration test with a breakdown time of fewer than 15 minutes; and did not meet the uniformity test with acceptance value of 34.06% for paracetamol and 34.30% for tramadol. It can be concluded that the prescribed medication of extemporaneously prepared capsule samples derived from a private hospital in Semarang can fulfill the standard values listed in the Indonesian Pharmacopoeia V except for the content uniformity test.</p> Paulus Unggul Wikan Prabandono Michael Raharja Gani Sri Hartati Yuliani Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 324 329 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.287 Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Herbs Used in Treatment of Diabetes, Malaria and Pneumonia in Kisii and Nyamira Counties Region, Kenya https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/314 <p>The herbs <em>Carissa spinarum, </em><em>Physalis</em><em> minima </em>and <em>Toddalia asiatica </em>have traditionally been used in healing diabetes, malaria and pneumonia by the communities around the Kisii region, Kenya. However in the available literature, there is scanty information on effectiveness of different plant parts of the herbs in healing the ailments. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential antimicrobial and antifungal activity of methanolic extract of whole plant<em> Physalis</em><em> minima,</em> leaf and root of<em> Carissa</em><em> spinarum</em> and <em>Toddalia asiatica </em>against gram positive bacteria<em> Staphylococcus aureus</em> (ATCC 25923), gram negative bacteria <em>Escherichia coli </em>(ATCC 25922) and fungus <em>Candida albicans </em>(ATCC14053).&nbsp;Antibiotic disc methicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ampicillin, nalidixic and nitrofurantoin were used in the study. In each herb, plant part was extracted by soaking in methanol/dichloromethane in ratio 1:1 for a week, filtered, concentrated by rotary vapor and cooled. The same process was repeated three times for all samples. The study was conducted by agar well diffusion method. Methanolic root extract of <em>Toddalia asiatica </em>showed highest antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (ATCC 25923), root extract of <em>Carissa</em><em> spinarum</em> had highest antibacterial activity against <em>Escherichia coli </em>(ATCC 25922) while root extract of<em> Toddalia asiatica </em>showed highest antifungal activity. It was concluded that root extract of<em> Toddalia asiatica</em> showed highest antibacterial activity 16.7mm &nbsp;against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>(ATCC 25923), root extract of <em>Carissa</em><em> spinarum</em> had highest antibacterial activity 10 mm &nbsp;against <em>Escherichia coli </em>(ATCC 25922) &nbsp;while &nbsp;root extract of<em> Toddalia asiatica</em> had highest antifungal activity 18 mm against <em>Candida albicans</em>.</p> Moses A. Guto Maobe Leonard Gitu Erastus Gatebe Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 330 337 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.314 Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Caffeine in Beverages Use Solvent Extraction Techniques and Adsorption of Activated Carbon https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/308 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Kafein memiliki kegunaan terapeutik yang luas, banyak digunakan di bidang farmasi sebagai analgesik, dan mengurangi demam. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Kafein juga banyak ditambahkan sebagai zat penyedap pada minuman ringan seperti coca cola dan minuman energi. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Konsumsi kafein yang berlebihan atau dalam jangka panjang dapat berdampak negatif bagi kesehatan. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Kandungan kafein dalam minuman bervariasi menurut mereknya, dari 10 hingga 50 mg per porsi. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jumlah kafein dalam minuman berkarbonasi dan minuman energi dengan menggunakan teknik ekstraksi pelarut kloroform dan teknik adsorpsi karbon aktif. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Kadar kafein dalam minuman dianalisis dengan metode spektrofotometri menggunakan panjang gelombang maksimum. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah kafein dengan teknik ekstraksi pada minuman coca cola adalah (31,39 ± 0,528 mg / saji), pepsi biru (27,93 ± 0,159 mg / sajian), banteng merah (39. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">79 ± 0,233 mg / porsi), dan macan kumbang (43,37 ± 0,860 mg / porsi). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Teknik adsorpsi yang diperoleh pada minuman coca cola adalah (32,07 ± 0,164 mg / saji), pepsi biru (27,42 ± 0,174 mg / saji), banteng merah (31,35 ± 0,132 mg / saji), dan macan kumbang (33,83 ± 0,205 mg / saji) . </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Pada minuman coca cola, diperoleh hasil terbaik mendekati nilai sebenarnya seperti yang tertera pada label. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Sedangkan untuk ketiga jenis minuman lainnya, jumlah kafein yang didapat lebih rendah dari yang diharapkan, dan masih di bawah batas maksimal yang diperbolehkan. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Dari dua teknik yang diteliti, teknik ekstraksi masih memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan teknik adsorpsi. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">dan macan kumbang (33,83 ± 0,205 mg / porsi). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Pada minuman coca cola, diperoleh hasil terbaik mendekati nilai sebenarnya seperti yang tertera pada label. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Sedangkan untuk ketiga jenis minuman lainnya, jumlah kafein yang didapat lebih rendah dari yang diharapkan, dan masih di bawah batas maksimal yang diperbolehkan. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Dari dua teknik yang diteliti, teknik ekstraksi masih memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan teknik adsorpsi. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">dan macan kumbang (33,83 ± 0,205 mg / porsi). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Pada minuman coca cola, diperoleh hasil terbaik mendekati nilai sebenarnya seperti yang tertera pada label. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Sedangkan untuk ketiga jenis minuman lainnya, jumlah kafein yang didapat lebih rendah dari yang diharapkan, dan masih di bawah batas maksimal yang diperbolehkan. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Dari dua teknik yang diteliti, teknik ekstraksi masih memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan teknik adsorpsi.</span></span></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Kata kunci</span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> : Kafein, Minuman, Ekstraksi, Adsorpsi, Spektrofotometri</span></span></p> Edy Agustian Yazid Abdul Wafi Agustin Eka Wulandari Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 338 346 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.308 Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein as The Key Target in the Development of Antiviral Candidates for COVID-19 through Computational Study https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/254 The recent public health crisis is threatening the world with the emergence of the spread of the new coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus originates from bats and is transmitted to humans through unknown intermediate animals in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Advances in technology have opened opportunities to find candidates for natural compounds capable of preventing and controlling COVID-19 infection through inhibition of spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. This research aims to identify, evaluate, and explore the structure of spike protein macromolecules from three coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) and their effects on Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2) using computational studies. Based on the identification of the three spike protein macromolecules, it was found that there was a similarity between the active binding sites of ACE-2. These observations were then confirmed using a protein-docking simulation to observe the interaction of the protein spike to the active site of ACE-2. SARS-COV-2 spike protein has the strongest bond to ACE-2, with an ACE score of ?1341.85 kJ/mol. Therefore, some of this information from the results of this research can be used as a reference in the development of competitive inhibitor candidates for SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins for the treatment of COVID-19 infectious diseases. Taufik Muhammad Fakih Mentari Luthfika Dewi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 347 352 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.254 Analysis of Ethyl p-Methoxycinnamate from Kaempferia galanga L. Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/331 <p>Ethyl para-methoxycinamate (EPMS) is a major compound of <em>Kaempferia galanga</em> L that has anti-inflammatory effect.&nbsp; The purpose of this study was to determine of EPMS in <em>Kaempferiae galanga</em> L rhizome extract by&nbsp; High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and evaluated the performance of the analysis. This study included determination of system suitability, accuracy, precision, linearity and range, limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantitation (LOQ) and selectivity.&nbsp; The results of system suitability test &nbsp;HPLC System for EPMS analysis were as follows isocratic elution system of a mobile phase mixture of methanol: water (70:30) containing 0.1% TFA, uv detector at a wavelength of 308 nm using column C18 (150 × 4, 6mm, 5?m) flow rate 1 ml / min. From the analysis, it was found that the average EPMS content was 78.74%. Then method had linear concentration range from 5-360 ppm, with R ² = 0.9999. The LOD and LOQ were 7.0722 ppm and 21.4311 ppm respectively. The accuracy of this method that represented by % recovery was 98.02% - 101.26%. The precision of this method that expressed by Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) was 1.57%. The selectivity of this method that showed by &nbsp;resolution value was 2.6. Based on the results of the system suitability test and analysis performance evaluation,all parameters met the requirements.</p> Wiwin Winingsih Sri Gustini Husein Rozalia Putri Neno Ramdhani Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 353 358 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.331 Analysis of Flavonids and Terpenoids in Ethanol Extract of Colocasia esculenta L. (Schoot) Stalk and Leaves https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/349 <p><em>Colocasia esculenta</em> L. (Schoot) is a widely used plant in developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Central America. The parts of the Colocasia plant that can be used are the tubers, stalks, and leaves. There has not been much research on the content of this plant. The study aims to determine the flavonoids and terpenoids in the ethanol extract of Colocasia stalk and leaves. The maceration method with 70% ethanol solvent and drying with vacuum evaporator. Determination of flavonoid levels based on quercetin marker compounds using AlCl<sub>3</sub> reagent by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The terpenoid levels were carried out gravimetrically with petroleum ether as a solvent. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Colocasia stalk and leaf contained flavonoids, respectively 3.18 <u>+</u>0.0581% and 4.33 <u>+</u>0.0285%, while the results of the terpenoid levels for stalks were 7.10 <u>+</u>0.0676% and leaves were 8.39 <u>+</u>0.0023%.</p> Erni Rustiani Aulia Fitriani Sri Wardatun Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 359 364 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.349 Antioxidant Activity Test of Effervescent Granules Morinda citrifolia L Leaf Extract with DPPH Free Radical Absorption Method https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/285 Morinda citrifolia. L leaf is a plant that has the potential as an antioxidant due to the presence of compounds in the form of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds that can function as natural antioxidants. In connection with this, research was carried out to Morinda citrifolia. L formulate leaf extract in the form of effervescent granules. Morinda citrifolia leaf extract was macerated with ethanol 96% as solvent. Phytochemical screening showsthat the extract contains flavonoids, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. The extract was formulated with various concentrations of F1 (20%), F2 (25%), F3 (4%). Determination of antioxidant activity using the DPPH free radical immersion method. The results showed that the concentration in the granules influenced antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 109.05 ppm, 101.33 ppm and 73.28 ppm, respectively Muthmainah Tuldjanah Niluh Puspita Dewi Dian Rahmawati Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 365 368 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.285 Physical Evaluation of Transfersome that Contains Pandan Leaves Extract (Pandanus amaryllifolius R.) https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/307 <p>Pandan leaves have been researched and have effectiveness in the treatment of burns. The process of healing burns takes a long time and cause a hard tissue because it loses its elasticity, making it difficult to penetrate. In this study, pandanus leaves were formulated into the nanovesicle carrier system, namely trasfersom. Transfersomes have the ability to deform, namely the ability to reduce the particle size 5-10 times from the original size when passing through the gaps between cells so that transfersom can increase the penetration of active substances. The three formulas used are based on the ratio of concentrations of trasfersome vesicles, namely phospholipids and span 80. Formula 1 is (90:10), Formula 2 (85:15) and Formula 3 (80:20). The best formula is determined based on transfersom characterization, including particle size and PDI (solidispersity index), zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, deformability, and TEM particle morphology. The results showed that Formula 3 (80:20) is the most stable formula with an average particle size of 730.1 ± 4.9 nm, PDI value &lt;0.7, zeta potential - 9.94 ± 1.02 mV, efficiency absorption 80.23%, and the deformability value 6.225.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rini Ambarwati Yulianita Yulianita Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 369 374 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.307 Antibacterial Activity of Salam (Syzygium polyanthum) Leaves 70% Ethanolic Extract on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/352 <p>Indonesia has a high diversity of potential medicinal plants, which are the second-largest number of indigenous medicinal plants in the world. <em>Syzygium polyanthum,&nbsp;</em>known as Indonesian Bay Leaf or Salam, easily found, widely used in Indonesia as a spice in cooking and traditional medicine. Salam contains secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, essential oils, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, phenols, steroids, and saponins. <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> are the main bacteria that cause commensal infection and the most common nosocomial infections. This study aims to know the antibacterial activity of the Salam ethanolic extract against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>and <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> bacteria. Salam leaves were extracted by 70% ethanol in the maceration method. Antibacterial activity was conducted by the disk diffusion method. The extract exhibits moderate activity (10.51±0.3 mm) at 75% of concentration and low activity (3.69±0.4 mm) at 100% of concentration against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> respectively. The test showed that salam leaves extract had antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em>.</p> Ayu Nala El Muna Haerussana Wulan Putri Dwiastuti Cindi Arwan Sukowati Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 375 380 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.352 Identification and Determination of Berberine from Arcangelisia Flava, East Borneo https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/372 <p>Berberine is a compound that has various benefits but also has dangerous toxic effects. In Indonesia, the Regulation of the Head of the Food and Drug Supervisory Agency No. 10 of 2014 concerning the Prohibition of Producing and Circulating Traditional Medicines and Health Supplements Containing Coptis Sp, Berberis Sp, Mahonia Sp, Chelidonium Majus, Phellodendron Sp, Arcangelica Flava, Tinosporae Radix, and Catharanthus Roseus. Regulation No. 7 of 2018 (BPOM, 2018) also prohibits the presence of berberine in processed food. This research was conducted to determine the content of berberine compounds from the extract and stem fraction of Arcangelisia flava. The research was conducted by identifying the content of berberine by TLC method compared with Rf Berberine sulfate and determination of berberine content by HPLC method (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) using column C-18 (ODS). Berberine content of methanol extract, n-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and Arcangelisia Flava methanol-water fraction were 0.0040, respectively; 0.0010; 0.0041, 0.0044%.</p> Riski Sulistiarini Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 381 386 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.372 Relationship of Knowledge on Respiratory Disorders with Lung Function in Masons in East Surabaya https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/342 <p>Masons are regularly exposed to air pollution in the workplace The pollution exposure received by them is a risk factor for respiratory problems. Most of the masons had insufficient knowledge that is very important for the management of a person's illness. The purpose of this study was to determine relationship of knowledge on respiratory disorders with lung function in masons in east surabaya. This research was an observational study with a cross-sectional design with a purposive method.The research was conducted from April to July 2019 in the East Surabaya area. The variables that will be observed in this study are the level of knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and treatment and therapy regarding respiratory disorders. In this study, there were 158 respondents consisting of 79 groups with impaired lung function and 79 groups without lung function disorders. Most of the level of knowledge of both groups was good in risk factors and treatment of respiratory disease, but instead on the symptoms regarding respiratory disease. The research showed that there was a relationship between the level of knowledge about risk factors for respiratory disease (p(0.223)&lt;0.05) and lung function, but there was no difference in knowledge about symptoms (p(0.745)&lt;0.05) and treatment (p(0.741)&lt;0.05) respiratory disease with pulmonary function. Therefore, it was necessary to plan further educational programs in increasing masons' knowledge of respiratory symptoms so that they could catch respiratory diseases earlier.</p> Amelia Lorensia Rivan Virlando Suryadinata Wilma Adib Gardiawan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 387 395 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.342 Antioxidants Activity of Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System on Dayak Onions Extract (Eleutherine palmifolia) using DPPH (2,2 difenil-1- picrylhydrazyl) Method https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/339 <p>Dayak onions (<em>Eleutherine palmifolia </em>L. Merr) is one plant that has been proven to have benefits as an antioxidant. The Dayak extract is formulated in the self nano emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) because the extract has low water solubility. The aims this study to develop the SNEDDS formulation system by testing its antioxidant activity. We determined whether there was an increase in antioxidant activity when formulated in the form of SNEDDS or not. The results were then compared with a solution of Dayak onions extract without using SNEDDS. The obtained formula was the optimal result that has been done before using the D-optimal mixture design method. The results of the components consisted of 50 mg of Dayak extract, 10 % caprylic triglyceride as oil, 1% tween 80, and 6,60 % transcutol as a combination surfactant and 12,40 % propylene glycol as co-surfactant. Antioxidant activity testing was carried out using the DPPH <em>(1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)</em> method. The antioxidant test using the DPPH method was done with two samples, namely the extract solution and Dayak onion extract SNEDDS. We elaborated the research by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Each sample was made into five concentrations, namely 30 ppm, 60 ppm, 90 ppm, 120 ppm, and 150 ppm, and carried out three times replications. The results showed that the IC<sub>50</sub> value in the Dayak onion extract solution was 227,19 ppm (very low), while for the SNEDDS solution for the Dayak onion extract the IC<sub>50</sub> value obtained was 38,97 ppm (very strong). The analysis was carried out next using an independent T-Test to obtain the results. There was no significant difference between the extract solution and the SNEDDS solution of Dayak onion extract.</p> Rahmi Annisa Tanaya Jati Dharma Roihatul Mutiah Sitti Nurjannah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 396 405 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.339 Front Cover, Editorial Information, Table of Content, Back Cover https://jtpc.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jtpc/article/view/310 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 4 i vii 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.310