Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry</a> (p-ISSN: <a href="">2087-7099</a>, e-ISSN: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2407-6090</a>) is a Biannual (june and December), international, open access (Indexed in <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SINTA</a> 3 (SK No. 10/E/KPT/2019) start from Volume 4 No. 4 2018 by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GARUDA</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Crossref</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PKP Index</a>, <a href=";type=all&amp;oaboost=1&amp;ling=1&amp;name=&amp;thes=&amp;refid=dcresen&amp;newsearch=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BASE</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Moraref</a>, <a href=";user=6NteZMwAAAAJ" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>), journal dedicated to various disciplines of pharmaceutical and allied sciences. The journal had been established in 2010, and online publication was begun in 2014. Since 2018, the journal has been published in English by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Faculty of Pharmacy</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Mulawarman</a> (UNMUL), Samarinda, Indonesia in and only receives manuscripts in English. </p> Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia en-US Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2087-7099 6,7-dimethoxydihydrocoumarin Compound from Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Steambarks Dysoxylum Alliaceum and Cytotoxic Activity Against P-388 <p><em>Dysoxylum</em> is a genus that has a variety of secondary metabolites. Research on various species of this genus is always growing and producing compounds that have interesting structures and activities, until now many compounds of the terpenoid group, chroman alkaloids, limonoids, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, protolimonoids and sulfur have been reported. which is very interesting. One of the <em>Dysoxylum</em> species that has a variety of secondary metabolites is <em>D. alliaceum</em>. The purpose of this study was to obtain secondary metabolites of <em>D. alliaceum</em> bark. The bark of <em>D. alliaceum</em> was macerated successively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The ethyl acetate extract was separated and purified by various chromatographic techniques and was characterized using spectroscopic methods including, ultraviolet, infrared, NMR and mass spectroscopy and guided by thin layer chromatographic analysis to obtain the compound 6,7-dimethoxydyhidrocoumarin and the proposed biogenesis. The chemical structure of these compounds has been determined based on the interpretation of spectroscopic data and compared with spectral data from previous studies. Cytotoxic activity test against P-388 MTT leukemia cells obtained an IC<sub>50</sub> of 39.210 g/mL and was declared inactive.</p> Ois Nurcahyanti Kartika Rahma Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 6 2 88 91 10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.405 Genistein Content and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity of Edamame (Glycine max) Extracts <p>The study aimed to determine genistein content and tyrosinase inhibition activity of 70% ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of edamame (<em>Glycine max</em>) with an extraction time of 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Extraction was performed using the ultrasonication method. Determination of genistein content was carried out using TLC-densitometry. Furthermore, all samples were tested for their tyrosinase inhibition activity using the spectrophotometric assay. Ethyl acetate extract with 60 min of extraction time exhibited the highest extraction yield (6.414% w/w), the highest genistein content (0.169 ± 0.007% w/w), and the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity (IC<sub>50</sub> = 72.420 ± 0.550 µg/mL). It was known that the genistein content of 70% ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts affected tyrosinase inhibition activity with correlation coefficient (r) values of 0.9973 and 0.9826, respectively. <em>G. max</em> was suggested as a tyrosinase inhibitor agent from natural sources for skin whitening product development due to its isoflavones content, mainly genistein.</p> Indah Yulia Ningsih Lisa Kusuma Wardhani Annisa Ragdha Eka Nuryuanda Endah Puspitasari Mochammad Amrun Hidayat Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 6 2 92 100 10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.461 Student Self-Medication Behavior in Stress Handling <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Changing learning patterns from senior high school student to college student status is difficult, and each individual's response varies, some of which cause stress. Factors that cause stress are internal and external, and external factors consist of physical, conflict, emotional, and behavioral conditions. In comparison, the external factors consist of the physical environment, work environment, community environment, family environment, economic and legal problems. The burden of life stress is heavy and impacts the physical, such as feeling dizzy, nauseous, ulcers, and difficulty sleeping. Sometimes causes a person to take self-medication to overcome these uncomfortable symptoms. This study aims to determine the characteristics of early-level students and the stress level of early-level students at one of the State Universities of East Kalimantan Province. This study used a qualitative descriptive design on 121 students. Using a questionnaire through a cross-sectional approach with a purposive sampling technique. The results showed that the stress level of students showed mild stress as much as 30.58%, moderate stress at 56.20%, and severe stress as much as 13.22%. The number of students who did self-medication was more than those who did not provide treatment for the symptoms, 79.34%. </span></p> Risna Agustina Ronny Lesmana Neily Zakiyah Siti Nuriyatus Zahrah Ajeng Diantini Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-10-20 2022-10-20 6 2 101 106 10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.467 Assessment of Physico-Chemical Properties of Drinking Water in District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p>The issue of water quality is becoming ever more serious as freshwater resources are severely degraded across the world. Water quality in rivers, streams, lakes, and subterranean aquifers is deteriorating, posing a threat to human life and ecological sustainability. A proper study of the physico-chemical properties of the water samples give us insight into the quality of life in a specific region, as poor water quality not only affects the aquatic life but the surrounding ecosystem as well. In the present study, 30 different water samples were collected from different regions of district Mardan and they were analyzed for their physico-chemical properties such as pH, total suspended solids, conductivity, total dissolved solids, nitrates concentration, sulphates concentration, chlorides concentration, dissolved oxygen, and biochemical oxygen demand. The results of the analysis show that most of the parameters have significantly higher values than the WHO permissible limits. From the analysis of water samples, the researchers have been able to designate the study area with poor water quality and to propose future advice for sustaining the water quality in the region.</p> Sayed Suliman Shah Dawood Shah Mujahid Islam Wajahat Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-11-22 2022-11-22 6 2 107 119 10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.436 Antithrombotic and Antioxidant Activities of Binahong [Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis] Leaf Ethanol Extract and Its Nanoemulsion Preparation in Swiss Webster Mice <p>Platelet aggregation has the potential to form thrombi and result in cardiovascular system diseases such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke - one of the leading causes of death globally. Traditionally, people use binahong leaves as blood thinners. Therefore, this study aims to obtain scientific data on the efficacy of binahong leaf&nbsp; as antithrombotic. The efficacy test was carried out on male Swiss-Webster mice. The results showed that the ethanol extract of binahong leaves at doses of 50 (BLEE50) and 100 mg/kg bw (BLEE100) could increase bleeding time on H7 (7.61±1.79% and 3.72±1.76% vs 1.08±0.90%) and H14 (13.81±4.42% and 5.06±2.30% vs 1.66±1.09%) and coagulation time at H7 (5.01±1.36% and 4.18±1.67% vs 1.38±1.08%) and at H14 (7.92±1.97% and 7.19±1.96% vs 1.70±1.10%) significantly (p&lt;0.05). The two doses of BLEE were formulated in the form of nanoemulsions with the Self Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (NBLEE50 and NBLEE100) were also able to prolong bleeding time and coagulation time significantly (p&lt;0.01) but only NBLEE50 prolonged bleeding time (p&lt;0.05) significantly against BLEE50. In the test of the anti-platelet aggregation effect with ADP as an inducer, both doses of BLEE and the nanoemulsion preparation (NBLEE) could significantly (p&lt;0.01) &nbsp;inhibit platelet aggregation with a percentage of inhibition &gt;70% which was not different from the standard (acetylsalicylic acid). In the antioxidant effect test using the DPPH method, BLEE has an IC<sub>50</sub> = 66.08?g/mL which is classified as a strong antioxidant. Both doses of BLEE and its NBLEE could significantly (p&lt;0.01) inhibit lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver and NO radicals formation. BLEE50 can significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduce mean platelet volume (6.05±0.24fL vs 6.55±0.34fL) and platelet distribution width (8.52±0.36% vs 9.25±0.42%). Based on those results, BLEE has the potential to be used as an antiplatelet aggregation and antioxidant.</p> Maria Immaculata Iwo Amirah Adlia Silviyanita Isna Septila Yennie Agnes Pratama Dicki Bakhtiar Purkon Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-12-18 2022-12-18 6 2 120 132 10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.516 HPLC-HRESI-MSn Characterization of Polyphenolic Compounds in the Stem Bark of Chlorophora regia A. Chev (Moraceae) <p>Isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from medicinal plants could be tedious and time consuming. Therefore, any technique that could be used to confirm the identity of medicinal plant constituents without isolating them will save time and resources. Chlorophora similar to many genera in the Moraceae family have been demonstrated to be rich sources of polyphenolic compounds with important biological activities. The current study was designed to employ HRESI-MS<em><sup>n</sup></em> analyses to qualitatively examine isolated polyphenolic compounds from the stem bark of <em>Chlorophora regia</em>. Based on the HRESI-MS<em><sup>n</sup></em> data obtained, the fragmentation patterns of the compounds under study will be proposed and could be used in their identification in a matrix. Five polyphenolic compounds were successfully isolated and purified using various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and <em>preparative</em> HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by in-depth analyses of their 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. HRESI-MS/MS was further used to characterize the isolated compounds. Five polyphenolic compounds including three Diels-Alder type adducts: sanggenon C, kuwanol E and chalcomoracin; two stilbene derivatives: chlorophorin and isochlorophorin were isolated from the stem bark. The tandem MS fragmentation patterns of the compounds in positive mode, were successfully proposed. The fragments obtained and proposed fragmentation patterns of the isolated compounds could be employed qualitatively in the identification of the studied polyphenolic compounds in a matrix.</p> James Oppong-Kyekyeku Samuel Oppong Bekoe Edmund Ekuadzi John Nii Adotey Addotey Samuel Asare-Nkansah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-11-22 2022-11-22 6 2 133 143 10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.419 Formulation and Stability Tests of Hair Tonic from Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Leaves Extract and Effectiveness in Protecting Hair Hair loss is a condition that unavoidable process, where the hair is detached more than 100 strands per day that occurs continuously. Oil palm leaf with their compounds can be used to treat hair loss and damage. The purpose of this study was to formulate oil palm leaf extract into hair tonic preparations and evaluate the effectiveness in preventing hair damage. Hair tonic formula from oil palm leaf extract contains 96% ethanol, menthol, propylene glycol, phenoxyethanol, and aquades. The evaluation of hair tonic preparations included organoleptic, homogeneity, pH, and viscosity tests, as well as tests of antioxidant activity and effectiveness of hair tonic preparations. The results of the antioxidant activity test of oil palm leaf extract hair tonic showed the IC50 value at room temperature (25°C) indicating an average value of 37.2519±8.535 ppm, warm temperature (50°C) 40.5459±9.086 ppm, and cold temperature (4°C) 36.8257±6.928 ppm, which belongs to the category of very strong antioxidant activity, with the results of the evaluation of the oil palm leaf hair tonic slightly colored. greenish to dark green, has a distinctive menthol aroma, has a pH and viscosity that meets the requirements of a good hair tonic preparation, with pH between 3-7 and viscosity less than 5 cPs. Hair tonic preparations of oil palm leaf extract can prevent hair decolorization due to sun exposure at concentrations of 25 ppm to 200 ppm. Angga Cipta Narsa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 6 2 144 153 10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.524 Front Cover, Editorial Information, Table of Content, Back Cover Journal Editor Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 6 2 i xvi 10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.536 A Detail Review on Heart-Leaved Moonseed (Tinospora cordifolia) Medicinal Plant <p>Worldwide, a usage of herbal medicine is gradually increasing for the safety and maintains the health due to its lower side effects. Numerous medicinal plants are using by the healers and traditional physicians to control the disease conditions. <em>Tinospora cordifolia </em>(Willd.)<em> </em>Miers (Menispermaceae Family) is distinguished as Heart-Leaved Moonseed herb of the Siddha Medicine which is practicing by Tamil speaking people in Sri Lanka. This present study emphases the detailed review of the pharmacological activities of the <em>Tinospora cordifolia </em>(<em>T. cordifolia</em>) based on the previous scientific studies and textbooks. Data were collected from all existing sources such as ancient and current indigenous text books, websites, proceedings, research and review articles and other related documents based on prepared data entry form. According to this study, <em>T. cordifolia </em>is an important traditional plant which has a variety of pharmacological activities and medicinal usage due to the numerous chemical constituents are present in the various part of this plant. As such, this review paper can serve as evidence for researchers to conduct future scientific research as well as clinical studies in Siddha Medicine.</p> Vinotha Sanmugarajah Gowri Rajkumar P.A.H.R. Panambara Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-11-22 2022-11-22 6 2 154 166 10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.466 The Potency of the Genus Uncaria from East Borneo for Herbal Medicine Purposes: A Mini-review <p>Uncaria is a genus of plants that are widely distributed in the tropics. There are about 5 of the 38 species of this genus growing in the tropical rain forests of East Borneo, Indonesia. For a long time, Uncaria is commonly used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases by the Dayak tribe in Kalimantan, traditional people believe that Uncaria may be cured cancer, tumors, mioms, and cycts. Based on previous studies, the activity of the genus Uncaria has been widely reported such as cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and thrombolytic activities. This article aims to summarize the potential of the Uncaria genus, focusing on 5 species from East Borneo, namely <em>Uncaria nervosa, Uncaria longiflora, Uncaria gambir, Uncaria tomentosa</em> and <em>Uncaria cordata</em>. The method used in this article is a literature study by collecting previous research articles related to the Uncaria genus. The results of the literature study show that the Uncaria genus in East Borneo has many secondary metabolites with diverse chemical structures that show good biological potential so that they can be used as broad and promising insights for drug discovery and development. This paper is also expected to provide input for the policy of conservation of medicinal plants in the forests of East Borneo.</p> Maria Almeida Supriatno Salam Agung Rahmadani Helmi Helmi Angga Cipta Narsa Sri Agung Fitri Kusuma Sriwidodo Sriwidodo Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 6 2 167 176 10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.457 Pharmacologically Active Secondary Metabolites from Psoralea corylifolia <p><em>Psoralea corylifolia</em> has gained much attention, particularly in the cosmetic industry for the past few years owing to promising pharmacological activities of its metabolites. Seeds of <em>P. corylifolia</em> are the main source of bakuchiol, a meroterpene compound that is extensively harnessed in numerous skincare products. Furanocoumarins, psoralen and isopsoralen are other metabolites mainly from <em>P. corylifolia</em> seeds and known for their antipsoriatic activity. Moreover, various studies have reported several classes of secondary metabolites from this plant possessing diverse biological activities. This article highlights recent updates on <em>P. corylifolia</em> phytoconstituents and their promising pharmacological activities based on scientific publications during the last 10 years (2011-2021). The literature search was carried out through scientific-based websites and databases such as Google Scholar, NCBI, and PubMed. This paper included sixty-three bioactive metabolites reported in the last 10 years, belonging to the group of flavonoids, meroterpenes, furanocoumarins, coumestans, steroid and phenolic compounds. These phytoconstituents displayed a broad range of bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antidiabetic, controlling obesity, hepatoprotective and cytotoxicity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bakuchiol, pharmacological activities, <em>Psoralea corylifolia</em>, bioactive metabolites.</p> Ni Putu Ariantari Elizabeth S. P. Ratnasantasyacitta Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 6 2 177 189 10.25026/jtpc.v6i2.431